Geology of High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal.pdf

Geology of High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal

I. S. Roxburgh

1 An introduction to high-level nuclear waste and the concept of geological disposal.- 1.1 Classification of nuclear waste.- 1.2 Origin of class I and II wastes.- 1.3 Amounts of waste involved.- 1.4 The nature of HLW and SURF.- 1.5 The need for containment.- 1.6 The concept of geological disposal of radioactive wastes.- 1.7 Criteria for a HLW geological repository.- 1.8 Non-geological methods of HLW disposal.- 1.9 Conclusions.- 2 The suitability of evaporites as HLW repositories.- 2.1 Introduction.- 2.2 Mineralogy and variability of evaporites.- 2.3 Physical properties of evaporites.- 2.4 Fluid inclusions in evaporites.- 2.5 Hydrogeology of evaporites.- 2.6 The rate of movement of salt diapirs.- 2.7 The effects of radiation on salt.- 2.8 Conclusions with respect to evaporites.- 3 The suitability of crystalline rocks as HLW repositories.- 3.1 Introduction.- 3.2 Mineralogy of granitic rocks.- 3.3 Physical and chemical properties of granites.- 3.4 The hydrogeology of granites.- 3.5 Effects of radiation on crystalline rock.- 3.6 Basalts.- 3.7 Tuffaceous rocks.- 3.8 Conclusions with respect to granitic and other crystalline rocks.- 4 The suitability of argillaceous rocks as HLW repositories.- 4.1 Introduction.- 4.2 Origin and composition of argillaceous rocks.- 4.3 The effect of heat on argillaceous rocks.- 4.4 The hydrogeology of clays.- 4.5 The ability of clays to retard the passage of radionuclides.- 4.6 Conclusions with respect to argillaceous rocks.- 5 The containment of radionuclides within repositories.- 5.1 The major physicochemical processes involved in radionuclide retardation.- 5.2 The study of natural analogues.- 5.3 Stabilizing waste forms.- 5.4 The waste canister.- 5.5 Buffer and backfill materials.- 5.6 Conclusions.- 6 Repository options, design and construction.- 6.1 Introduction.- 6.2 Repository site selection guidelines.- 6.3 Thermal loading in repositories.- 6.4 Subsurface excavation.- 6.5 Geothermal gradients.- 6.6 Examples of repositories.- 6.7 Backfilling and sealing repositories.- 7 Seabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste.- 7.1 Introduction.- 7.2 The London Dumping Convention.- 7.3 Criteria for the selection of seabed disposal sites.- 7.4 Sites under consideration for seabed disposal.- 7.5 The nature of the seabed sediments.- 7.6 Emplacement techniques.- 7.7 The waste form and the canister.- 7.8 Thermal effects on the sediment.- 7.9 The sediment as a barrier to radionuclide migration.- 7.10 The transportation of radionuclides from the seabed-water interface to the food chain.- 8 Groundwater and its movement.- 8.1 Introduction.- 8.2 The nature of groundwater and its ability to dissolve geochemical material and radionuclides.- 8.3 Movement of groundwater.- 8.4 Problems in defining the relevant hydrogeological parameters.- 8.5 Conclusions.- 9 Risk assessment and release scenarios for rock repositories.- 9.1 Introduction.- 9.2 Approaches to release scenarios and risk assessment.- 9.3 A time scale for predictions.- 9.4 Examples of generic and site-specific release scenarios.- 9.5 Conclusions regarding release scenarios and risk analysis.- References.

U.S. GAO - Key Issues: Disposal of High-Level … The nation's decades of commercial nuclear power production and nuclear weapons production have resulted in growing inventories of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level nuclear waste. This highly radioactive waste is currently stored at sites in 35 states because no repository has been developed for the permanent disposal of this waste.

5.13 MB DATEIGRÖSSE
9401076774 ISBN
Englisch SPRACHE
Geology of High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal.pdf

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